Fauna of the Mediterranean Sea

The fauna of the Mediterranean is characterised by a great diversity of species, but the number of representatives of each species is small. There are crayfish, one species of seal (the Mediterranean monk seal), sea turtles and 550 species of fish.


Zooplankton of the Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is characterised by a relatively low quantitative development of zooplankton, resulting in relatively few large animals, including fish, feeding on them.


Most common fish in the Mediterranean

Sharks, scombridae, clupeidae, anchovy, mugilidae, coryphaenidae, tuna, sarda, trachurus, etc. are the most common species found in the Mediterranean. About 70 species of fish are endemic, among them: rays, some species of hamsa, gobies, dogfish, guban, needlefish. 


What mammals live in the Mediterranean?

Mammals in the Mediterranean include dolphins, white-bellied seals, killer whales and porpoises. Turtles are also found.


Molluscs of the Mediterranean

The most important edible molluscs are the oyster, the Mediterranean-Black Sea mussel and the sea date. 


Mediterranean invertebrates

Among the invertebrates, octopus, squid, sepia, crabs, achelata are common; species of jellyfish, siphonophores, thaliaceans, pyrosomes are abundant; sponges and red corals inhabit some areas.


Are there sharks in the Mediterranean?

There are believed to be more than 40 species of sharks in the Mediterranean Sea. The list of the most famous species includes:

Carcharodon carcharias - great white shark;

Galeocerdo cuvier - tiger shark;

Odontaspis taurus - sand shark;

Carcharhinus leucas - bull (bluntnose) shark;

Carcharhinus longimanus - oceanic longfin shark;

Isurus oxyrinchus - mako shark;

Heptranchias perlo - seven-gill shark;

Sphyrna mokarran - giant hammerhead shark;

Prionace glauca - blue (blue) shark;

Carcharhinus melanopterus - blacktip shark;

Negaprion brevirostris - lemon shark.


Dangerous inhabitants of the Mediterranean

There are not many inhabitants in the Mediterranean Sea that are dangerous to humans. These are: luminous violet jellyfish, hermodice carunculata, sea eels and moray eels, stingrays, sea ruffs, and dasyatis.


Poisonous fishes of the Mediterranean

Trachinus draco is the only dangerous fish in the Mediterranean that can attack humans first. It has venomous spines that contain a powerful toxin that can cause prolonged pain.


Jellyfish of the Mediterranean

In total, there are more than 200 species of jellyfish in the Mediterranean. The most common species are Cotylorhiza tuberculata, Aurelia aurita, Pelagia noctiluca and Cassiopea Andromeda. Mediterranean jellyfish live at different depths, from coastal areas to the deep sea. 


Exotic animals of the Mediterranean

One of the most famous inhabitants of the Mediterranean is the Caretta caretta, or sea turtle. This unique and rare species attracts attention with its charming appearance and unusual way of living in the marine environment. Other interesting creatures include the common dolphin and the Atlantic white-sided dolphin. 



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Dogfish, Spiny

Dogfish, Spiny

Latin name Squalus acanthias Other names Dogfish, dog shark, grayfish, Pacific grayfish, Pacific ..

Dolphin, Common

Dolphin, Common

Latin name Coryphaena hippurus Other names Dolphinfish, common dolphinfish, mahimahi, mahi mahi, ..

Eels, Moray

Eels, Moray

Latin name Gymnothorax funebris Other names Green Moray Eel Identification The body of a typic..

European Anchovy

European Anchovy

Latin nameEngraulis encrasicolusOther namesEngraulis encrasicolusIdentificationBody elongated, low, ..

European Flounder

European Flounder

Latin namePlatichthys flesusOther namesPlatichthys flesus, Flesus vulgarisIdentificationThe body is ..

European plaice

European plaice

Latin namePleuronectes platessaOther namesPlaiceIdentificationThe adult body shape is oval, with the..

European seabass

European seabass

Latin nameDicentrarchus labraxOther namesEuropean bass, sea bass, common bass, white bass, capemouth..

Goby (Gobiidae)

Goby (Gobiidae)

The gobies (lat. Gobiidae) are a family of ray-finned fishes in the order Gobiiformes. More than 200..

Golden grey mullet

Golden grey mullet

Latin nameChelon auratusOther namesChelon auratusIdentificationThe body is elongated, low, barely co..

Greater weever

Greater weever

Latin nameTrachinus dracoOther namesTrachinus draco Linnaeus, Trachinus lineatus Bloch & Schneid..

Grey reef shark

Grey reef shark

Latin nameCarcharhinus amblyrhynchosOther namesGray reef sharkIdentificationThe body of the fish is ..

Lesser weever

Lesser weever

Latin nameEchiichthys viperaOther namesLesser weeverfish, adder pike, black fin, little weever.Ident..

Meagre

Meagre

Latin nameArgyrosomus regiusOther names–°roaker, shade-fish, sowa, kir, corvina, salmon-bass, stone b..

Mediterranean horse mackerel

Mediterranean horse mackerel

Latin nameTrachurus mediterraneusOther namesBlack Sea horse mackerel, horse mackerel, Mediterranean ..

Mugilidae

Mugilidae

Mugilidae is a family of ray-finned fishes of the order Mugiliformes. The head is broad. The mouth i..

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