Sardine is a fish of two genera Sardina and Sardinops of the family Clupeidae. The mouth is terminal. There are radial grooves on the gill cover. The body length is up to 33 cm or slightly longer. There is a dark spot behind the gill cover. Inhabit temperate and subtropical waters of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, as well as in the Black, Yellow and Mediterranean Seas. In Russian waters there are: Ivashi, or Far Eastern sardine (Sardinops melanostictus) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) - gregarious marine pelagic fish 27-30 cm long, spawning in winter-spring time and hatching pelagic eggs. They are zoo- and phytoplanktophagous.
Body compressed from sides, length up to 30-35 cm, usually up to 15-20 cm. Along the back along the sides of a row of dark spots, at the base of the caudal fin - a pair of elongated scales ("wings"), on the gill cover - radial grooves. In each genus one species with several subspecies. Dwell in moderately warm and subtropical coastal waters of both hemispheres, except for the eastern coast of North and South America. Planktophagous, live at temperatures from 10 to 20 ° C. They live up to 8-14 years, sexual maturity in the 2nd year, pelagic eggs, fecundity 25-90 thousand eggs. Target fishery.